Musical instruments are instruments for producing sounds , adapted to perform the music . An essential part of each of them is a vibrator ( string , membrane , air column ) ; physical vibrator affect the tonal vibration actuator ( bow , drum stick , plectrum ) incytatora called for strengthening the sound produced by the energized vibrator is used resonator ( soundboard , soundboard ) , the shape and placement of the vibrator relative influence on the sound.
In 1914, E. Hornbostel and C. Sachs proposed the division of the instruments due to the type used in their construction vibrator on :
- Membranophones , in which the vibrations are taut membrane - membrane (eg, boilers , drums )
- Idiophones , in which the vibrator is solid with their own resilience ( xylophone , harmonium , gong ) ;
- Chordofony , in which the vibrator is taut string (eg, violin , harp, piano)
- Aerofony , where the role of the vibrator fully pole wprawionego the vibration of air ( wind instruments , organ) ; the emergence of new classification structure was supplemented in the later decades of - 5 elektrofony where incytatorem is an electric vibration generator , vibrator and - speaker diaphragm ( synthesizers , electronic organs ) . This classification can be more precise, it takes into account criteria such as the way of stimulating vibrator - scratched , struck, plucked , wind and method of construction such as aerofony tuning , lip mouthpiece . In practice, the division of musical instruments at :